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    首頁» 圖片新聞» 沈興海與彭述明課題組合作發表宏觀超分子自組裝鈾分離新方法

    沈興海與彭述明課題組合作發表宏觀超分子自組裝鈾分離新方法

     

    低碳排放的核能被認為是解決世界日益增長的清潔能源需求最有希望的方案之一。鈾是生產核能的重要原料,其分離和提純引起了研究者們的廣泛興趣。溶劑萃取是目前最成熟的鈾分離和提純技術。然而傳統的萃取流程步驟較多,需要進行反萃和進一步濃縮等后續處理才能達到最終分離富集目標金屬離子的目的。由此帶來一個棘手的問題,即傳統的萃取往往伴隨著大量的有機廢液甚至放射性廢液產生,這些廢物如不能得到妥善處理和處置,將給環境帶來巨大的潛在威脅。

    宏觀超分子自組裝(Macroscopic supramolecular assembly, MSA)是超分子化學的研究前沿。要實現宏觀尺度的超分子自組裝,有兩個必須滿足的條件:第一,組裝模塊之間要有分子間相互作用力;第二,要有持續的驅動力推動這些組裝模塊相互靠近,使他們的距離達到納米尺度以下,讓大量的分子間相互作用力能夠發生,從而實現宏觀自組裝。馬朗戈尼效應(Marangoni effect)是實現宏觀尺度超分子自組裝的一種理想的驅動力。然而,表面張力梯度引起的馬朗戈尼效應通常持續時間較短,導致組裝效率較低。

     

    北京大學化學與分子工程學院沈興海課題組與中國工程物理研究院核物理與化學研究所彭述明課題組合作,巧妙地將宏觀超分子自組裝的思路設計在萃取體系中,基于羥基功能化離子液體開發了一種新穎、環保、高效的鈾萃取分離方法,直接在離子液體-水界面處得到一顆富鈾的固體小球,成功實現了水溶液中鈾酰離子的一步法提取和固化。該方法在乏燃料后處理、含金屬離子廢水處理等領域具有重要的應用前景,并有望克服傳統溶劑萃取體系流程繁瑣、易產生大量放射性有機廢液等諸多問題。

    該工作不僅豐富了離子液體體系中的萃取方法,而且為宏觀超分子自組裝領域的一個重要科學問題即持續推動力問題的解決,提供了新的途徑。基于羥基離子液體特殊的表面性質及其參與陽離子交換并與萃取劑和鈾酰離子配位造成局部濃度變化這一特點,在界面創造了連續的馬拉戈尼效應,解決了其持續時間較短的難題,進一步實現了鈾與配體螯合物從分子尺度到介觀尺度再到宏觀尺度的自組裝,整個過程沒有引入任何外力,是自發的熱力學過程。

     

     

    相關研究結果以Uranium Capture Strategy based on Self-assembly in Hydroxyl-functionalized Ionic Liquid Extraction System為題,于2019520日發表于英國皇家化學會期刊Chemical Communications(DOI: 10.1039/C9CC02823D),沈興海教授與彭述明研究員為共同通訊作者。該研究得到了國家自然科學基金聯合基金重點項目“離子液體中鑭系元素的配位化學及其痕量離子的萃取研究” 的資助(項目編號:U1830202)。

     


     

     

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